Vitamin D is a nutrient needed to regulate calcium and phosphorous. The body produces vitamin D through a chemical reaction after 5 to 30 minutes of direct exposure to sunlight. People in northern locales and people who stay indoors are at risk of a vitamin D deficiency, which can lead to conditions like rickets and osteoporosis. Vitamin D also boosts the immune system and is known to prevent cancer and autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D is found in a few foods, but supplements may be needed in certain cases to boost vitamin D levels. However it is always important to try to get the vitamin D you need through food and sun exposure before beginning to take supplements.
If a young man's low testosterone is a problem for a couple trying to get pregnant , gonadotropin injections may be an option in some cases. These are hormones that signal the body to produce more testosterone. This may increase the sperm count. Hedges also describes implantable testosterone pellets, a relatively new form of treatment in which several pellets are placed under the skin of the buttocks, where they release testosterone over the course of about three to four months. Injections and nasal gels may be other options for some men.