Other side effects include increased risk of heart problems in older men with poor mobility, according to a 2009 study at Boston Medical Center. A 2017 study published in JAMA found that treatments increase coronary artery plaque volume. Additionally, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires manufactures to include a notice on the labeling that states taking testosterone treatments can lead to possible increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. The FDA recommends that patients using testosterone should seek medical attention right away if they have these symptoms:
Bioidentical hormones have the same chemical structure as hormones produced in the human body. There have been many studies demonstrating their safety. At this time, with the ready availability of bioidentical hormones, there is no reason to use non-human formulations. There is a track record of benefit and safety for women taking controlled doses of these hormones, in carefully selected formulations, under medical supervision. Horse hormones and progestins for hormone replacement should become obsolete. Patient demand will make this happen.
Male hormones decrease in production during the aging process in an event sometimes called male menopause , but there isn't clear evidence as to why this is. Some guess that it has to do with an increase in body fat which contains the enzyme aromatase . This enzyme has been indirectly linked with a decrease in male hormones in the body. Too little testosterone may cause a decrease in sexual interest as well as erectile dysfunction. Hormone levels can be tested to find out if they have decreased in effectiveness and hormone replacement therapy is possible for those who are effected by the problem.